Hacking 101: Learn The Basics

laptop compute displaying command prompt, hacking 101

Hacking is a term often shrouded in mystery and misconception. In movies, hackers are portrayed as shadowy figures with superhuman abilities, effortlessly breaching firewalls and stealing terabytes of data. However, the reality of hacking is far more nuanced.

Hacking 101 will guide you through the fundamental concepts of hacking, exploring the different types, the techniques employed, and most importantly, the ethical considerations that define responsible hacking practices.

Whether you’re a curious computer enthusiast or a security professional seeking to bolster your defenses, this article equips you with the foundational knowledge to navigate the ever-evolving world of hacking.

What is Hacking?

Hacking is the deliberate exploitation of vulnerabilities in computer systems, networks, or devices to gain unauthorized access or control. Hackers employ various techniques to bypass security measures and achieve their objectives, which can range from stealing sensitive data to disrupting operations or causing damage.

This definition highlights the following key points:

  • Deliberate: Hacking is not accidental. Hackers actively seek out and exploit vulnerabilities.
  • Exploitation: The focus is on the act of taking advantage of a weakness, not just finding it.
  • Unauthorized access: Hacking is about gaining entry or control that is not authorized by the system owner.
  • Objectives: Hackers have a variety of motivations, not just stealing data.
Hacking 101 Disclaimer
This article is for learning only, hacking without permission is illegal.
Don’t use this info for bad things! Only hack stuff you have permission for and be careful, it can be tricky. We’re talking about ethical hacking here, so get trained if you want to do it for real.

In a cybersecurity context, hacking encompasses various activities:

  • Unauthorized Access: Gaining entry to systems or accounts without proper authorization.
  • Data Theft: Stealing sensitive information or documents.
  • System Disruption: Causing damage to or corrupting systems.
  • Information Gathering: Collecting data on users.

Brief History of Hacking

Historically, hacking emerged in the 1970s and gained prominence through the next decade. Movies like “Tron” and “WarGames” introduced hacking to a wider audience, portraying characters breaking into computer systems.

Notably, the term “hacker” took on negative connotations after a group of teenagers cracked major organizations’ computer systems. Since then, hacking has evolved, becoming a multibillion-dollar industry with sophisticated techniques.

It’s important to note that hacking isn’t always malicious. Ethical hacking, also known as white hat hacking, is the legal and authorized practice of hacking a system to identify vulnerabilities and improve security.

However, the term “hacking” often carries a negative connotation due to its association with cybercrime.

Common Hacking Techniques

Here are some common hacking techniques:

#1. Phishing

Phishing, the art of deception in the digital age, is a cunning attempt by hackers to steal your personal information. Imagine a cunning angler casting a line, their lure disguised to look like a delicious morsel.

In the world of phishing, the bait is an email or message that appears to come from a trusted source – your bank, a social media platform, even a friend. Disguised with logos and familiar language, these messages aim to reel you in, ultimately compromising your sensitive data.

The phisher’s hook can come in many forms. A message might warn of a suspicious account activity, urging you to click a link to “verify” your information.

Another might offer a too-good-to-be-true deal, luring you to a fake website designed to steal your credit card details. Phishing emails often play on emotions, creating a sense of urgency or panic to cloud your judgement.

So how can you avoid becoming the phisher’s catch? Vigilance is key. Be wary of any unsolicited emails or messages, even if they appear to come from a legitimate source. Don’t click on suspicious links or attachments, and be cautious of messages that pressure you to act immediately. Always double-check the sender’s email address – a close inspection can often reveal a cleverly disguised phisher.

If you’re ever unsure about the legitimacy of a message, it’s best to err on the side of caution. Don’t be afraid to contact the supposed sender directly through a trusted channel (like a phone number you know is correct) to verify its authenticity.

#2. Cross-site Scripting (XSS)

In the complex world of web security, there lurks a sneaky threat known as Cross-Site Scripting, often abbreviated as XSS.

Imagine a seemingly harmless message board, where users can post comments and share information. But beneath the surface, a cunning hacker might be lurking, waiting to inject malicious code into these messages.

XSS works by exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications that don’t properly validate user input. If a hacker can sneak a bit of malicious script into a seemingly normal message, that script can be executed by the unsuspecting user’s browser. This is akin to the hacker planting a tiny, hidden program within the message itself.

The consequences of XSS can vary depending on the hacker’s goals. They might steal cookies containing your login credentials, hijack your browsing session to redirect you to malicious websites, or even deface the web page itself with misleading information.

XSS attacks are particularly dangerous because they can appear to come from a trusted source, like a friend’s message on a social media platform.

So, how can you defend yourself against XSS? There’s a shared responsibility between web developers and users. Developers need to implement proper validation techniques to ensure user input is safe and doesn’t contain hidden scripts.

As a user, you can practice caution when interacting with online content, especially on unfamiliar websites or message boards. Being wary of clicking on suspicious links or strange-looking messages can go a long way in protecting yourself from XSS attacks.

By understanding this sneaky tactic, both developers and users can work together to create a safer online environment. Remember, even the most innocent-looking message board can harbor hidden threats. Vigilance and a healthy dose of skepticism are key to staying safe from the perils of XSS.

#3. Social Engineering

This broader approach manipulates human psychology to gain access to information or systems. Hackers might use tactics like pretexting (inventing a fake scenario to gain trust), scareware (creating a sense of urgency to pressure someone into acting rashly), or baiting (offering something enticing to lure someone into a trap).

Social engineering attacks are like the con artists of the cybersecurity world. Instead of fancy gadgets or complex code, they exploit human psychology to manipulate us into giving away sensitive information or compromising our security.

These attackers are social engineers, and their tricks are all about building trust and exploiting our natural tendencies. They might pose as a helpful tech support person, a coworker in a crisis, or even a friend offering a hot stock tip.

Phishing is a classic example. You receive an email that appears to be from your bank, credit card company, or even a familiar online service. It warns of a suspicious login attempt or an urgent need to update your account information. The email will often have a link, and clicking it takes you to a fake website that looks real. Once you enter your login details, the attacker has them!

Other Social Engineering Techniques

Social engineering isn’t limited to emails. Vishing (voice phishing) uses phone calls, and smishing targets mobile phones with text messages. In all these cases, the attacker plays on our emotions – fear, urgency, or even greed – to cloud our judgment and make us act rashly.

Another tactic is pretexting. Here, the attacker invents a scenario, or pretext, to gain our trust. They might call posing as a representative from a charity you support, or a tech company investigating a security breach. Once they have their foot in the door, they’ll subtly manipulate you into revealing personal information or granting access to your computer.

Social engineering can also target physical security. Tailgating is a common example, where someone follows closely behind an authorized person to piggyback their way into a secure area.

#4. Password Attacks

Password attacks represent the clandestine efforts of malicious actors to infiltrate secured systems or accounts by exploiting vulnerabilities in authentication mechanisms. These covert operations, often executed with cunning precision, seek to breach the fortress of digital defenses and gain unauthorized access.

Among the arsenal of techniques employed in such endeavors, one of the most direct is the brute force method. Like a relentless siege, attackers systematically bombard the authentication system with an exhaustive array of possible password combinations until the elusive correct one is discovered. It’s a method characterized by its sheer persistence and brute strength, leaving no stone unturned in the pursuit of access.

In contrast, dictionary attacks take a more strategic approach. Drawing from a reservoir of common words, phrases, or previously compromised passwords, attackers launch a calculated assault, exploiting predictable human behavior and lax password choices.

This method capitalizes on the tendency for users to select passwords based on easily guessable terms, turning familiarity into vulnerability.

What Are Rainbow Tables?

For those seeking efficiency, rainbow tables offer a shortcut to success. These precomputed tables of password hashes serve as cryptographic shortcuts, enabling rapid decryption of hashed passwords. By matching stored hashes to their corresponding plaintext passwords, attackers can swiftly bypass the barriers erected by cryptographic defenses, accessing protected systems with deceptive ease.

#5. Malware

This malicious software can take many forms, including viruses, worms, Trojans, and spyware. Once installed on a device, malware can steal data, disrupt operations, or even lock users out of their systems entirely. Anti-virus software and careful browsing habits can help prevent malware infections.

Malware, a sinister term in the digital age, refers to malicious software that infiltrates your device with ill intent.

Imagine a seemingly harmless program, downloaded with a click or lurking in an email attachment. But beneath the surface, this malware acts like a stealthy thief, stealing your data, disrupting your system, or even holding it hostage.

Forms of Malware

There are many forms of malware, each with its own devious agenda. Viruses, like their biological counterparts, replicate themselves and spread from device to device, often through infected files or downloads.

Worms exploit network vulnerabilities to slither across connected systems, wreaking havoc in their wake.

Trojan horses, disguised as legitimate software, lull you into a false sense of security before unleashing their payload.

Spyware lurks in the shadows, silently gathering your personal information, keystrokes, and browsing habits.

The consequences of a malware infection can vary depending on the type. Some malware might aim to steal your login credentials, credit card information, or other sensitive data. Others might bombard you with unwanted advertisements or redirect you to malicious websites.

Ransomware, a particularly nasty strain, encrypts your files, holding them hostage until you pay a hefty ransom to regain access.

So how can you protect yourself from these digital invaders? The first line of defense is prevention. Be cautious about what you download and only install software from trusted sources.

Avoid clicking on suspicious links or opening unknown attachments in emails. Anti-virus software, kept up-to-date with the latest definitions, can act as a vigilant guard, detecting and blocking malware before it can infect your system.

#6. Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks

These attacks overwhelm a website or server with a flood of traffic, making it unavailable to legitimate users.

Imagine a bustling restaurant, overflowing with hungry patrons. Suddenly, a swarm of unwelcome guests floods the entrance, taking every seat and bombarding the waiters with nonsensical requests. This chaos is a simplified analogy for a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack in the digital world.

A DoS attack aims to cripple a website or online service by overwhelming it with a massive influx of traffic. Hackers can achieve this through various means, like bombarding the target with meaningless requests or exploiting weaknesses in the system’s infrastructure. The result? Legitimate users are shut out, unable to access the service while it struggles to handle the onslaught.

DoS attacks can be disruptive and costly. For businesses, they can translate to lost sales and a tarnished reputation. For individuals, they can disrupt access to important services like online banking or news websites.

While DoS attacks don’t typically steal data, they can be a nuisance and a tool for other malicious activities. Hackers might launch a DoS attack as a diversion, while they quietly exploit other vulnerabilities in the system. DoS attacks can also be used to silence critical voices or disrupt online activities during crucial events.

Fortunately, there are ways to defend against these digital onslaughts. Security professionals employ various techniques to filter out suspicious traffic and bolster the system’s capacity. Staying informed about cyber threats and keeping software up-to-date can also help mitigate the risk of DoS attacks.

#7. SQL Injection

This technique exploits vulnerabilities in websites and applications that rely on databases. Hackers can inject malicious code into user inputs to manipulate the database and potentially steal sensitive information.

Imagine a vast library with meticulously organized shelves, each containing rows of books filled with information. SQL Injection, a hacker’s tactic in the digital realm, exploits weaknesses in how websites communicate with these libraries, known as databases.

Websites often rely on databases to store information, from user login credentials to product details. SQL (Structured Query Language) acts as the librarian’s assistant, sending instructions to the database to retrieve specific pieces of information. Hackers can manipulate this communication by injecting malicious code into user inputs, like search bars or login forms.

Think of it like cleverly disguising a fake instruction card and slipping it amongst the legitimate ones a librarian uses. If the website doesn’t properly check these user inputs for malicious code, the hacker’s hidden instructions might be accepted and executed by the database.

The consequences of an SQL injection attack can be severe. Hackers might use this technique to steal sensitive data like usernames, passwords, or credit card information stored within the database. They could even manipulate the database itself, adding or deleting information to cause chaos.

How to Protect Against SQL Injection

Fortunately, there are ways to fortify these digital libraries against such attacks. Website developers can implement strong input validation techniques, ensuring only safe instructions reach the database. Regular security updates and using well-established database software also play a crucial role in defense.

As a user, you can’t directly control the security measures on websites you visit, but you can practice caution. Be wary of entering sensitive information on websites that seem suspicious or lack proper security measures. If you encounter a website that behaves strangely, it might be a sign of a compromised database – best to avoid such websites and report them to the appropriate authorities.

#8. Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

These attacks involve eavesdropping on communication between two parties, such as a user and a website. Hackers can intercept data or even inject fake messages to manipulate the conversation for their gain. Secure Wi-Fi connections and encryption can help mitigate this risk.

Operating under the cloak of deception, the MitM attacker establishes themselves as an invisible conduit, masquerading as a legitimate endpoint to both parties involved. With adeptness born of subterfuge, they manipulate the transmission of data, wielding their position of influence to eavesdrop, modify, or even inject malicious payloads into the communication stream.

One of the most common avenues for such nefarious exploits lies within unsecured public Wi-Fi networks, where unsuspecting users, drawn by the allure of connectivity, unwittingly expose themselves to the lurking threat of interception.

Through these vulnerable access points, MitM attackers can intercept sensitive information exchanged between users and online services, siphoning off valuable data like a digital pickpocket.

Furthermore, MitM attacks can manifest in various forms, each bearing its own distinctive modus operandi.

In a passive interception scenario, the attacker silently observes the communication stream, stealthily harvesting valuable intelligence without leaving a trace of their presence.

Conversely, in an active interception scheme, the attacker takes a more aggressive stance, manipulating the communication flow to their advantage, potentially injecting malicious content or forging deceptive messages.

The repercussions of a successful MitM attack can be catastrophic, ranging from the compromise of sensitive personal information to the exfiltration of confidential corporate data. Financial transactions, private communications, and even critical infrastructure systems all stand vulnerable to the pernicious influence of these clandestine adversaries.

Protecting Against MitM Attacks

Mitigating the risk posed by MitM attacks demands a multifaceted approach, encompassing both technical safeguards and user awareness.

Implementing robust encryption protocols, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), fortifies the digital channels against prying eyes, rendering intercepted data indecipherable to would-be eavesdroppers.

Likewise, vigilance in scrutinizing digital certificates and verifying the authenticity of communication endpoints serves as a bulwark against the deceptive tactics employed by MitM attackers.

#9. Cookie Theft (Session Hijacking)

This attack method exploits a legitimate user’s session to gain unauthorized access to information or services within a computer system. The term “cookie” refers to a small piece of data stored on a user’s device by a website during a login session.

This cookie acts as a digital key, allowing the server to recognize the user and maintain their logged-in status throughout their visit.

Hackers employ various techniques to steal these cookies. Common methods include:

  • Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks: The attacker intercepts communication between the user’s device and the server, eavesdropping on the exchange and potentially capturing the session cookie. This often occurs on unsecured Wi-Fi networks.
  • Packet Sniffing: Malicious software can sniff network traffic, potentially capturing cookies transmitted between the user and the server in unencrypted communication.
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks: Hackers inject malicious scripts into a legitimate website. When a user visits the compromised site, the script can steal the user’s session cookie and transmit it to the attacker.
  • Malware: Downloaded malware can scan a user’s device for stored cookies, potentially including session cookies for various websites.

The consequences of cookie theft can be severe. Once a hacker possesses a valid session cookie, they can impersonate the legitimate user and gain access to their accounts. This can lead to a range of malicious activities, including:

  • Financial Fraud: Hackers can access the victim’s bank accounts, investment portfolios, or online payment systems to steal money.
  • Data Theft: Sensitive information stored on the compromised accounts, such as personal details, business documents, or intellectual property, becomes vulnerable.
  • Account Takeover: Hackers can use the stolen credentials to hijack the victim’s email, social media accounts, or other online services.

#10. Zero-Day Attacks

These attacks exploit vulnerabilities in software that the software vendor is not even aware of yet. Zero-day attacks are silent assassins. These attacks exploit vulnerabilities in software, hardware, or firmware that are completely unknown to the developers or vendors. Imagine a chink in a suit of armor that no one knew existed – that’s the power (and danger) of a zero-day.

The term “zero-day” refers to the fact that software vendors have zero days – no time at all – to issue a patch or fix since they’re unaware of the problem.

Hackers, on the other hand, can leverage this blind spot to launch attacks before anyone knows to defend against them. These attacks can be devastating, allowing hackers to steal data, install malware, or disrupt critical systems.

Zero-day vulnerabilities can emerge from anywhere. They might be flaws in the code itself, or unexpected interactions between different software programs.

Because they’re new and unknown, traditional security measures are often useless. It’s like trying to lock a door with a key that doesn’t fit – the security system is bypassed entirely.

These attacks are especially dangerous for organizations that rely heavily on technology, such as banks, power grids, and government agencies. A successful zero-day attack can cause immense financial damage, operational chaos, and even pose a threat to national security.

How to Defend Against Zero-Day Attacks

The good news is that there are ways to defend against zero-day attacks, although it requires a layered approach. Keeping software up-to-date with the latest security patches is crucial, as vendors scramble to fix the vulnerabilities once they’re discovered.

Additionally, security researchers are constantly working to identify and disclose zero-day vulnerabilities responsibly, giving vendors a head start in patching the flaws.

Beyond updates, organizations can employ security measures that look for suspicious behavior, even if the specific vulnerability is unknown. This can include firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and sandboxes that isolate suspicious code to prevent it from spreading.

Finally, user education is paramount. By training employees to be cautious of suspicious emails, attachments, and links, organizations can create a human firewall that helps prevent zero-day attacks from gaining a foothold in the first place.

Zero-day attacks are a constant threat in the ever-evolving world of cybersecurity. But by staying informed, implementing robust security measures, and fostering a culture of security awareness, we can make it much harder for these silent assassins to succeed.

#11. Watering Hole Attacks

Watering hole attacks lurk in the digital world like predators by a real watering hole. Hackers target specific websites frequented by a particular group of users – employees in an industry, members of a social club, even visitors to a religious organization’s website.

Once they compromise these legitimate sites, attackers can unleash a digital ambush. Malicious code injected into the website’s script infects any device that visits, or drive-by downloads silently occur in the background.

Phishing tactics might even use the compromised website to host fake login pages or downloadable files that steal user credentials or install malware in disguise.

The appeal of watering hole attacks for hackers is their effectiveness. People trust established websites they frequent, making them less cautious about potential threats. This targeted approach allows attackers to focus on a group more likely to have the information or access they desire, all while staying hidden under the cloak of a trusted site.

Protecting yourself at the digital watering hole requires vigilance. Always keep your software updated with the latest security patches to close vulnerabilities hackers exploit. Be wary of unfamiliar websites, especially if they appear unprofessional or unrelated to your usual browsing habits. Scrutinize downloads – never trust unexpected prompts from websites.

Consider using a reputable security software suite that can detect and block malware before it infects your device. By staying informed and practicing safe browsing habits, you can significantly reduce your risk of falling victim to a watering hole attack, ensuring your digital ventures remain secure.

Types of Hackers

Within the intricate tapestry of cybersecurity, hackers emerge as diverse personas, each wielding distinct motivations, methodologies, and ethical frameworks. Here, we delve into the five archetypal types of hackers:

Black Hat Hacker

These shadowy figures epitomize the darker side of hacking, driven by malicious intent and criminal objectives. Black hat hackers exploit vulnerabilities in systems, networks, and software for personal gain, be it financial enrichment, data theft, or disruption of services.

Operating outside the bounds of legality and ethical norms, they deploy sophisticated techniques to breach defenses, compromise systems, and inflict harm upon unsuspecting victims.

Grey Hat Hacker

Occupying the murky middle ground between white and black hats, grey hat hackers navigate a morally ambiguous landscape. While they may engage in activities that skirt the boundaries of legality, their motives are not purely nefarious.

Grey hat hackers often uncover vulnerabilities in systems without authorization but may choose to disclose them publicly or offer their services to assist organizations in improving their cybersecurity posture.

Despite operating in a legal and ethical gray area, their actions may yield positive outcomes, albeit with ethical implications.

White Hat Hacker (Ethical Hacker)

The noble guardians of cyberspace, white hat hackers deploy their formidable skills for virtuous purposes. Committed to upholding the principles of integrity and security, they work within the confines of legality and ethical guidelines to bolster cybersecurity defenses.

White hat hackers conduct penetration tests, vulnerability assessments, and security audits to identify and rectify weaknesses before malicious actors can exploit them. Collaborating with organizations, governments, and cybersecurity firms, they serve as frontline defenders against cyber threats.

Red Hat Hacker

Characterized by their proactive approach to cybersecurity, red hat hackers embody the spirit of offense as a means of defense.

Unlike their black hat counterparts, red hat hackers operate with explicit authorization to test, probe, and assess the security of systems and networks.

Employed by organizations or hired as independent consultants, they simulate real-world cyberattacks to identify vulnerabilities, assess risk, and strengthen defenses.

Green Hat Hacker

Emerging as the fledgling novices of the hacking community, green hat hackers represent a new generation of aspiring cybersecurity enthusiasts. Eager to learn and experiment, they possess the raw talent and curiosity necessary to explore the intricacies of hacking.

Green hat hackers often lack formal training or experience but are driven by a passion for cybersecurity and a desire to expand their knowledge and skills.

While their endeavors may be marked by trial and error, green hat hackers play a vital role in the ongoing evolution of cybersecurity, bringing fresh perspectives and innovative approaches to the field.

As the digital landscape continues to evolve, so too will the motivations, methodologies, and classifications of hackers. From the shadows of criminality to the forefront of cybersecurity defense, hackers shape the ever-changing contours of the digital frontier.

What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical hacking, the authorized practice of simulating cyberattacks, presents two distinct but crucial aspects: penetration testing and government-sanctioned hacking.

Penetration Testing

Penetration testing acts as the internal guardian within the commercial and private sectors. Here, ethical hackers morph into simulated adversaries, strategically targeting a system’s defenses with the owner’s full consent.

Their mission? To exploit weaknesses in the system’s security posture that malicious actors might utilize for a real attack.

Pen testers typically follow a structured approach, meticulously planning and defining the scope of the test, followed by information gathering to understand the target system’s architecture and potential vulnerabilities.

They then assess and exploit these vulnerabilities using various tools and techniques, attempting to gain unauthorized access or control. Finally, they document their findings, outlining the severity of the discovered weaknesses and proposing remediation strategies.

This collaborative effort with the system’s owner allows them to address the identified gaps and bolster the overall security posture. The benefits are undeniable: proactive threat detection, a strengthened security posture, and enhanced compliance with data security regulations.

Government-Sanctioned Hacking

On the other side of the ethical hacking coin lies government-sanctioned hacking, conducted by intelligence agencies or a nation’s military.

Here, ethical hackers operate within the legal boundaries defined by their government to achieve specific national security objectives.

These objectives could range from foreign intelligence gathering, infiltrating foreign networks to glean insights on activities and capabilities, to counter-espionage efforts, identifying and disrupting operations targeting a nation’s secrets or infrastructure.

Additionally, government-sanctioned hacking can be used for cyber-defense purposes, essentially penetration testing critical national infrastructure to identify and address vulnerabilities before hostile actors can exploit them.

Government-sanctioned hacking is a complex and often debated topic. While it offers valuable intelligence and strengthens national defenses, it raises concerns about international law, privacy rights, and the potential for escalation in cyber warfare.


This journey into Hacking 101 has equipped you with the fundamental knowledge to navigate the complexities of this ever-changing landscape. We’ve explored the various techniques employed by hackers, from social engineering’s manipulative tactics to the technical finesse of SQL injection attacks. By understanding these methods, you’re better prepared to identify and mitigate potential threats.

Remember, the hacker landscape isn’t black and white. We’ve encountered the ethical side of hacking, embodied by white hats who utilize their skills to fortify defenses.

The key takeaway? Hacking isn’t just about malicious actors; it’s a double-edged sword. By harnessing the power of ethical hacking, we can proactively identify and address vulnerabilities, ultimately creating a more secure digital environment for everyone.


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